• Environmental Issues

Environment which includes lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere is the basic components of geographical studies. Man while exploiting natural resources injudiciously, has thrown the world into global warming, depletion of ozone layer, acidification, pollution, etc. compounding to environmental deterioration and ecological imbalance and thus, endangering the very survival of mankind.

The philosophy of Islam rejects improper use of natural resources and promotes ‘need-based’ exploitation of resources. Had the world’s resources been exploited on the Islamic ethical principle, the present environment crisis would have been avoided and a healthy environment for the future generation would have been created.

Environment issues may be studied under the following sub-headings:

  1. Atmospheric pollution, water contamination and landslides.

  2. Sustainability of environment with reference to renewable and non-renewable resources.

  3. Deforestation and desertification-emphasis on Muslim countries.

  4. Environmental hazards – floods, droughts, earthquakes.

  • Demographic issues

The most fascinating area of geographical analysis is demographic issues. Issues such as population growth, sex ratio, Muslim concentration and women problems of Muslim communities are misunderstood in many parts of the world. Geographers while using demographic techniques will be able to examine population problems and would provide not only a suitable model to the world in the light of Islamic system of believe but also to remove the wrong notions of Islamic perspective on population. The demographic study may include the following aspects:

  1. Demographic structure, fertility, mortality, sex-ratio and population growth.

  2. Demographic transition and deputation problems and migrations.

  3. Spatial distribution – rural and urban.

  4. Muslim women issues – dowry, divorce, work participation, and social justice.

  • Socio-Economic Issues

A number of social problems – including caste, creed and religions discrimination, and economic disparity, employment, poverty, etc. are encountered by the people throughout the world in general and Muslims in particular. Illiteracy poverty, group conflicts, lack of leadership are commonly associated with the Muslim countries, in many parts of the world. The geographical study would be of great use in analyzing these issues both in terms of space and time.

These issues may be studied under the following groups:

  • Social:

  1. Patterns of literacy and educational attainments.

  2. Poverty, hunger and crime patterns.

  3. Malnutrition, deficiency and communicable diseases.

  4. Implications of religious conversion – with reference to Islam.

  5. Communal wars, Shia –Sunni tensions and group clash.

  • Economic:

  1. Muslim work force – Agriculture, mining, industries, others.

  2. Impact of agricultural and industrial innovations on Muslim countries.

  3. Economic development and quality of life.

  4. Unemployed youths – and child labour among the Muslim communities

  • Special Issues

  1. Role of Muslim geographers in the development of geographical concepts with reference to Arab geographical concepts with reference to Arab geographers.

  2. Geo-politics in the formation of Muslim Republics in Central Asia.

  3. General election and response of Muslims in India.

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